The On-Board Diagnostic version 2 (OBD2) system has revolutionized the way vehicles are diagnosed and repaired. It is a mandatory requirement for all cars manufactured after 1996, and it has become an essential tool for mechanics and car owners alike.
The OBD2 system connects the car and scanner through a specific protocol, and there are five types of protocols, each with its unique set of connectors and pins. In this article, we will delve into the various OBD2 protocols by make and model, including the types of connectors and pins required for each protocol.
The OBD2 system is an electronically-controlled system that monitors the performance of a vehicle’s engine and other vital components. It has sensors that detect faults in the system, which are then displayed as fault codes on a scanner.
The OBD2 system has made it easier to diagnose and repair cars, and it has also made it possible for car owners to monitor their vehicles’ performance and detect problems early on. In this article, we will explore the different types of OBD2 protocols and their significance in diagnosing and repairing cars.
We will also provide a guide for identifying the OBD2 protocol supported by your vehicle using the connector pins, enabling you to unlock your car’s secrets and better understand its diagnostics using OBD2 technology.
- OBD2 systems are required by law in vehicles made in 1996 or later, and DLC connects car and scanner through OBD2 protocol.
- There are five types of OBD2 protocols: SAE J1850 PWM, SAE J1850 VPW, ISO 9141-2, ISO 14230 KWP2000, and ISO 15765-4 CAN (SAE J2480), with each protocol having different connectors and pins.
- Pin 4, 5, and 16 are must-haves for any OBD2 protocol, and the easiest way to identify the protocol is to look at the alignment and availability of pins.
- OBD2 connector pins can be examined to find out which protocol is supported by the vehicle, and there are different types of OBD2 scanners available in the market, ranging from cheap to expensive.
OBD2 System Basics
The OBD2 system, which is required by law in vehicles manufactured in 1996 or later, connects the car and scanner through the DLC using one of five types of protocols. These protocols include SAE J1850 PWM, SAE J1850 VPW, ISO 9141-2, ISO 14230 KWP2000, and ISO 15765-4 CAN (SAE J2480).
Each protocol differs in the number of connectors or pins and is specific to certain makes and models of vehicles. SAE J1850 PWM is commonly found in Ford vehicles and operates at 41.6 kb/sec. On the other hand, SAE J1850 VPW is mostly found in GM vehicles and does not have pin 10.
ISO 9141-2, similar to ISO 14230 KWP2000, is mostly found in European vehicles built between 2000 and 2004. ISO 15765-4 CAN, found in modern US vehicles built in 2008 or later, has four variants.
Identifying the OBD2 protocol supported by a vehicle is typically done by examining the alignment and availability of pins on the connector, a process that can be aided by reference to a detailed guide.
Types of OBD2 Protocols
Five distinct types of OBD2 protocols exist, each with its own unique characteristics and commonly found in specific vehicle makes and models.
The SAE J1850 PWM protocol is found in Ford vehicles and operates at a speed of 41.6 kb/sec, while the SAE J1850 VPW protocol is found in GM vehicles and has no pin 10.
The ISO 9141-2 protocol is mostly found in European vehicles built between 2000 and 2004, and ISO 14230 KWP2000 is similar to ISO 9141-2 and can be found in Asian, Chrysler, and European models.
Finally, ISO 15765-4 CAN protocol is found in modern US vehicles built in 2008 or later and has four variants.
It is important to note that a vehicle’s OBD2 protocol can have different pin configurations and connector types, such as Type A (12V) and Type B (24V). Proper identification of the protocol can be determined by examining the pins on the connector.
Pin 4, 5, and 16 are must-haves for any protocol, while the easiest way to identify the protocol is to look at the alignment and availability of pins. Understanding the different types of OBD2 protocols is crucial when selecting the appropriate scanner or diagnostic tool for a specific vehicle make and model.
Identifying Your Vehicle’s Protocol
Proper identification of a vehicle’s OBD2 protocol is essential for selecting the correct diagnostic tool or scanner. The easiest way to identify the protocol is to look at the alignment and availability of pins on the OBD2 connector. Pin 2 and 10 with metallic pins 2, 4, 5, 10, and 16 indicate the J1850 PWM protocol found in Ford vehicles. Pin 2 with material contacts inside pins 2, 4, 5, and 16 but no pin 10 is the J1850 VPW protocol found in GM vehicles. Pins 7 and optional pin 15 with metallic contacts inside pins 4, 5, 7, 15, and 16 could be either ISO 9141 or ISO 14230 KWP2000, whereas pins 14 and 6 with material contacts 4, 5, 6, 14, and 16 is the ISO 15765 CAN protocol found in modern US vehicles built in 2008 or later.
To make it easier for readers to identify their vehicle’s protocol, the following table summarizes the OBD2 protocols by vehicle make and model:
|Vehicle Make/Model||OBD2 Protocol|
|European vehicles (2000-2004)||ISO 9141-2|
|Asian, Chrysler, and European models||ISO 14230 KWP2000|
|Modern US vehicles (2008 or later)||ISO 15765-4 CAN (SAE J2480)|
By referring to this table and examining the OBD2 connector pins, vehicle owners can easily identify their vehicle’s protocol and select the right diagnostic tool or scanner to unlock their car’s secrets.
Frequently Asked Questions
What types of data can be accessed through the OBD2 system beyond basic diagnostic codes?
The OBD2 system can access various data beyond basic diagnostic codes, such as real-time engine parameters, emission levels, fuel consumption, vehicle speed, and sensor readings. This data can be used for performance analysis, maintenance, and troubleshooting, among other purposes, with the help of compatible software and tools.
Are there any limitations to what can be done with OBD2 scanners in terms of making repairs or modifications to a vehicle?
The OBD2 scanner is limited to accessing and diagnosing the vehicle’s electronic system and providing information about the issue. It cannot modify or repair the vehicle’s physical components, and any modifications must be made by a trained technician or mechanic.
What is the difference between a Type A and Type B OBD2 connector, and how does this affect compatibility with different vehicles?
The difference between Type A and Type B OBD2 connectors lies in the voltage they support, with Type A supporting 12V and Type B supporting 24V. The compatibility with different vehicles is determined by the connector type required by the specific vehicle.
Are there any common issues or limitations with using OBD2 scanners on older vehicles or models from specific manufacturers?
The use of OBD2 scanners on older vehicles or specific manufacturers may be limited due to the absence of or incompatibility with certain protocols. Additionally, some vehicles may not have complete OBD2 systems or may require specialized equipment for diagnostics.
How do OBD2 protocols and connectors differ from earlier OBD systems, and what impact does this have on compatibility and functionality?
OBD2 protocols and connectors differ from earlier OBD systems in terms of the number of pins and connector types. This impacts compatibility and functionality since different protocols require specific pins to function properly.